WOOD SPECIES

EUCALYPTUS (Eucalipto)

  • Brazil has 463 million hectares forests, 54,4 % of the area of the country
  • 7,6 million hectares planted forests (less than 1% of land area)
  • Eucalyptus spp 5.3 million ha 70,00 %
    • Productivity 40 m3/h (wet basis)
  • The major states (million hectares):
    • Minas Gerais (MG) 1.4
    • Sao Paulo (SP) 1.0
    • Bahia (BA) 0,6
    • Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) 0,6

What ́s Up:

  • The first genetically modified (GM) eucalyptus was approved 9.4.2015; 20% increase in yield
  • Bio-oil of eucalyptus

PINUS

  • Planted pinus spp forests in Brazil 1.562.782 ha (21,75 %)
  • The major states of planted pine (2012) million hectares:
    • Paraná (PR) 0,6
    • Santa Catarina (SC) 0,5
    • Rio Grande do Sul (RS) 0,2
    • Sao Paulo (SP) 0,1

ACACIA (Acácia Negra)

  • Planted acacia forests in Brazil (2012) Acacia mearnsii/Acacia mangium
    • 148.311 ha 2,12 %
  • Planted acacia forests are mainly located in Rio Grande do Sul.

TROPICAL HARDWOOD

  • Most important states:
    • Pará
      • Paragominas, Tailândia, Tomé-Açú, Ulianópolis
    • Mato Grosso
      • Colniza, Aripuanã, Juara
    • Rondônia

LOGS, BARK, STUMPS

  • Eucalyptus (Eucalipto), pinus and acacia (Acácia) logs (toras) are processed into chips to be used e.g. in the pulp manufacturing or in biomass boilers
  • About 10 % of the weight of eucalyptus is consisting of bark (casca). Wet bark shall be dried before burning it.
  • About 20 % of eucalyptus and pinus biomass is consisting of stumps (tocos), which can be processed into chips e.g. to be burned in biomass boilers

PULP & PAPER INDUSTRY A indústria de papel e celulose

  • The Brazilian pulp production recorded a high, reaching 16.5 million tons in 2014 being 4th biggest in the world
  • Paper production remained stable in Brazil, totalling 10.4 million tons in 2014 being 9th biggest in the world
  • There are 220 pulp and paper companies in Brazil
  • In Brazil, 100 percent of the pulp and paper production originates in planted eucalyptus and pine forests
  • Today, one hectare eucalyptus gives up to ten tons of pulp. This means that a pulp and paper industry with production capacity of one million tons of pulp requires plantings in the order of 100,000 hectares.

WOOD PANEL INDUSTRY (MDF, MDP, PLYWOOD)

  • In the wood-based panels segment in Brazil, production reached 8 million cubic meters in 2014
    • Medium Density Particleboard (MDP)
    • Medium-density fibreboard (MDF)
    • Plywood
  • 816.000 hectares planted forests (eucalyptus and pine) are used for wood panels

SAWMILLS (Serrarias)

  • Brazil has 1.200 sawmills
  • Most of sawmills (87 %) are located in the south
    • In Santa Catarina
    • In Parana
  • The manufacturing methods of the Brazilian saw industry are quite primitive:
    • Less than 50 % is timber products
    • The rest is waste of timber
  • In Amazon region 60% of wood is waste in the primary processing
    • Generating 18 million tons residues
    • Electric energy could be generated of Wood waste to replace diesel engines

PELLET FACTORIES

In Brazil pellets can be produced of

  • Eucalyptus
  • Pinus
  • Acacia
  • Bagasse of sugar cane
  • Straw of sugar cane
  • Energy cane
  • Elephant grass

STEEL INDUSTRY

CHARCOAL (Carvão vegetal)

  • Brazil is the world leader in the use of charcoal (carvão vegetal) in the blast furnaces of the steel industry
  • Brazilian steel mills have 1 million hectares planted eucalyptus for charcoal production
  • Minas Gerais is producing 4,3 million tons/year = 85 % of the total charcoal production in Brazil

What ́s Up:

  • Charcoal to be replaced by wood chips!
  • It is possible to generate electric energy of the gases of the charcoal production
  • New application for the fine particles: 25% in weight less than 10 mm diameter

EUCALYPTUS CHIPS

What ́s Up:

  • Eucalyptus chips are used in the production process FeNi
  • Woodchip = heat and reducer

TANNIN EXCTRACTION

  • In Brazil tannins are extracted mainly from the bark of acacia (Acácia Negra)
    • black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild)
  • Rio Grande de Sul is the major tannin producing state in Brazil
  • Mimosa tannin adhesives are commercially produced and used in Brazil, too