SUGARCANE (Cana-de-açúcar)

  • Brazil is producing annually 640 million tons sugarcane (Cana-de-açúcar) being the biggest producer in the world
  • Sao Paulo state is producing about 60 % of Brazil ́s total sugarcane production

SUGARCANE BAGASSE (Bagaço)

  • Sugarcane bagasse (bagaço) is a sub-product of sugar and ethanol production
  • Each ton of sugarcane is generating 250 kg bagasse
    • 220 million tons annually in Brazil
  • Bagasse is used as a fuel in biomass power plants
    • Humidity 50%
    • 1800kcal/kg on wet basis

What ́s up:

  • Bagasse is used as a feedstock for the second generation ethanol

SUGARCANE STRAW (Palha)

  • The traditional way of burning sugarcane straw (Palha da cana-de-açúcar) on the camp is forbidden, when harvested mechanically
  • Each ton of sugarcane generates about 140 kg straw
  • About 40 million tons straw is annually available for the biomass power plants and 2G ethanol production plants

What ́s up:

  • Begasse is used as a feedstock for the second generation ethanol
  • Problems with sand

VINASSE (Vinhaça)

  • Vinasse (Vinhaça) is a sub-product of ethanol production
  • For each liter of ethanol about 13 liters of vinasse is generated
    • Brazil is generating annually 420 million tons vinasse
  • Vinasse has high organic load
  • The direct application of untreated or inadequately treated vinasse can cause several environmental problems

What ́s Up:

  • Biogas can be produced by the anaerobic digestion of vinasse without loosing the fertilizing capacity given the high levels of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus, greatly reducing the need for chemical fertilizers

FILTER CAKE

  • Filter cake (Torta de filtro) is a sub-product of sugar and ethanol production
    • 18 to 30 kg per processed sugarcane ton
    • Humidity = 75%
  • Brazil is generating annually 20 million tons filter cake
    • In Sao Paulo state over 10 million tons/season

ENERGY CANE (Cana-energia)

  • Energy cane (Cana-energia) is the most productive source of biomass per hectare
    • 60 tons per hectare/year on dry bases
    • Vs. Eucalyptus 20 tons per hectare/year on dry bases

What ́s Up: Energy cane can be used:

  • As a fuel in biomass power plants
  • As a feedstock for the second generation ethanol
  • As a feedstock for the biobutanol

SORGHUM (Sorgo)

  • SORGHUM (Sorgo) is a grass specie
  • Productivity: 30-50 tons per hectare/year on dry basis
    • In 6 months into 6 meter height

What ́s Up

  • ”Sorgo sacarino” is developed as an option for the ethanol production
  • ”Sorgo biomassa” is developed to be used as a fuel in biomass power plants

ELEPHANT GRASS (capim elefante)

  • Elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum (capim elefante)
    • Productivity 40-50 tons/hectare (on dry basis)
    • Growing in 6 months into 6 meter height
  • Some problems with elephant grass:
    • Relatively high on alkaline constituents – Rich in corrosive agent precursors
    • Relatively high ash content
    • Lowered ash melting point

What ́s Up:

  • Most of chlorine and alkalis can be reduced by a new Saalasti technology!

CASSAVA (Mandioca)

  • Brazil with 21 million tons annual production of cassava roots, is the world's 2nd largest producer
  • Majorstates:
    • Pará
    • Paraná
    • Bahia
    • Maranhão

SUGAR ETHANOL FACTORIES

  • Brazil has about 360 sugar and ethanol mills
    • 60 % of the capacity located in Sao Paulo state
  • Brazil is producing this season 28 million tons ethanol being the world's second largest producer
  • Brazil is producing this season 37 million tons sugar

What ́s up:

  • Bagasse and straw of sugarcane are processed for the Cellulosic ethanol (2G second generation ethanol)

COCONUT WATER FACTORIES

  • Coconut water factories in Brazil are processing annually 3 million tons green coconuts
    • Taking into consideration the coconuts consumed "in nature" e.g. on the beaches the total amount of coconut husk is about 7 million tons per year
  • Coconut husk has humidity 80-90 %; it can't be burned without de-watering
  • Coconut husk is generating environmental problems in open dumps and landfills e.g. dengue fever

What ́s Up:

  • The first shredding & de-watering plant delivered to Bahia!
  • Coconut husk as a raw material for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)